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Article 357. Ineffective juridical acts

(1) If, under the law, a juridical act, without being void or avoidable, does not, totally or partially, produce its legal effects, it is, to that extent, ineffective.
(2) A juridical act becomes effective as soon as the ground for ineffectiveness is cured.
(3) The ineffectiveness of a juridical act may be claimed, both as an action, and as a defence, by any person that has an arisen and actual interest. A court is under a duty to find it out of its own motion after having heard the views of the participants to the proceeding.
(4) Both the legal action to find ineffectiveness and a defence of ineffectiveness are not barred by limitation periods unless the law provides otherwise.  Notwithstanding, legal actions for enforcement of the effects of the ineffectiveness of a juridical act are subject to a limitation period of 10 years, regardless if such an action is lodged together with the action to find ineffectiveness or subsequently to its the admission of such a legal action.

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