Article 417. Absence of publicity. Sanctions
(1) If a publicity formality was not satisfied, and the law does not provide that it is constitutive, rights, acts, facts or legal relationships subject to publicity are not opposable to third parties unless it is proven that they were aware of the same in another way.
(2) Where the law provides that the mere awareness about a fact does not cure the absence of publicity, the absence may be invoked by any interested person, including by a third party who was aware, in another way, of the right, act, fact, or legal relationship subject to publicity.
(3) In all cases, however, the mere awareness about the right, act, fact, or legal relationship does not cure the absence of publicity in respect of all persons other than the third party that was, in fact, aware of the same.