Article 501. Guarantees of ownership
(1) Subject to the law, ownership is inviolable.
(2) Ownership is guaranteed. Nobody may be forced to surrender its property unless for public utility cause for adequate and prior indemnity. Expropriation is subject to the law.
(3) For works of general interest, a public authority may use the soil of any immovable property with a duty to indemnify the owner for loss caused to the soil, plantations, or constructions, as well as other attributable losses.
(4) The indemnity provided for in paragraphs (2) and (3) is agreed to with the owner or, failing that, by judgment. In this case, the decision to withdraw the property from the person’s ownership may not be enforced before the judgment is final.
(5) Property acquired lawfully may not be confiscated except for those meant or used in committing a contravention or a crime. The lawfulness of the acquisition of property is presumed.